Sorry for the delay.
Ok, I played a little with this in emulation to understand it better and presume you know how to read schematics (can you?). This is a bit of an overview but you should see the outputs of the U4 and U5 chips change accordingly as words are (supposed to be) spoken during solenoid test mode. Importantly when the first word begins, all outputs of U4 and U5 should change from high to low, and the /BUSY signal from the U8 Speech processor should go low (zero volts or lower) during the time words should be spoken.
At power up, the Lamp Strobe #2 signal pulses high which latches all outputs of both 4174 chips at U4 and U5 "high".
On U5 this selects speech command "3F" hex which is the last spoken word available by the speech processor at U8. Presume this vocal word is just something silent/null.
On U4, this sets the U2 555 clock generator for the speech processor to about 30.5kHz (highest voice pitch).
It also sets the boards pre-amp output to volume 7 of 7 (this is reverse order so is quietest level - not necessarily silent).
Unfortunately there's no datasheet available for the S14001A speech processor so it makes things a bit more challenging.. It appears the "active low" /BUSY line can go to "-10" volts which isn't strictly logic level - hard to say without measuring a board. i.e. when it's low which could be between zero volts and -10 volts, it's busy processing speech. When it's near 5 volts (logic high) it's ready to accept a speech command.
At this point the /BUSY line from the U8 speech processor should be near 5 volts. This tells the MPU board via the Lamp Interrupt signal it's not busy and it's ready to accept a speech command.
Fast forward to solenoid test mode when it reaches solenoid #29.
After test "29", the test goes to "01" activating solenoid #01 but also the speech board says the word "One". To initiate this the following happens:
(1) Lamp Strobe #2 signal pulses high and latches all outputs of the 4174 chip at U4 chip "low". This sets the U2 555 clock generator for the speech processor to about 20.0kHz (lowest voice pitch), and the pre-amp output to volume 7 of 7 (loudest level).
(2) Lamp Strobe #2 signal pulses high again and latches all outputs of the 4174 chip at U5 chip "low". The U5 outputs selects speech command "00" hex which gets the speech processor at U8 ready to say the first word in its vocabulary sitting in the ROM which is "One". During this time, the speech processor makes the /BUSY line active by pulling it to zero volts or lower and is gated to the MPU board telling the CPU not to send any speech commands yet. The Lamp Strobe #2 signal now goes low and the speech processor now starts saying the word "One" by actively reading encoded voice data for "One" from the speech ROM.
(3) The speech processor finishes saying the word, and releases the /BUSY line so the MPU board can send the next speech command during solenoid test mode.
The sequence of commands during solenoid test mode are:
#01 U5:"00" "One" U4:"0-0" 20.0kHz, loudest volume.
#02 U5:"01" "Two" U4:"1-0" 21.5kHz, loudest volume.
#03 U5:"02" "Three" U4:"2-0" 23.0kHz, loudest volume.
#04 U5:"03" "Four" U4:"3-0" 24.5kHz, loudest volume.
#05 U5:"04" "Five" U4:"2-1" 23.0kHz, 2nd loudest volume.
#06 U5:"05" "Prepare" U4:"2-2" 23.0kHz, 3rd loudest volume.
#07 U5:"06" "Mission" U4:"2-4" 23.0kHz, medium volume.
#08 U5:"07" "Stand" U4:"2-7" 23.0kHz, quietest volume.